เตรียมสอบ IELTS ตอนที่ 4
วันนี้ เราไปฟัง Seminar ที่ IDP มาแหละ
ได้คำแนะนำดี ๆ มากมายจากอาจารย์ David Park
ใครที่ไม่ได้ไป หาอ่านบทความเกี่ยวกับการเตรียมตัวสอบ IELTS ได้จาก Bangkok Post ค่ะ
บทความด้านล่างนี้แนะนำการสอบใน Part Writing ค่ะ
Describing flow charts
In the Academic Writing Task 1 in Ielts (International English Language Testing System),
you may be asked to describe a process presented as a flow chart. The questions test your ability to:
describe each important stage in the process;
expand on the information in the flow chart when it helps to describe what's happening;
organise your description in a logical way, linking each action with appropriate vocabulary; and
use the passive voice.
'Stage' versus 'step'
To describe a flow chart, you need to understand the meanings of the words "stage" and "step".
Any activity, such as preparing and writing an essay, can be divided into several stages. A "stage" is simply a main part of the activity. A stage is always made up of a number of separate but related "steps". A step is an individual action in a series of actions taken for a particular purpose.
The sample flow chart outlines how to write Ielts Task 2 essays.
I'll use it to show how to write a Task 1 report.
Understand the flow chart. To do this, find a place to begin,
and work your way through or around the flow chart. Identify the main stages, and work out their order.
Watch out for stages that happen at the same time as other stages, or stages that are alternative stages.
In the sample flow chart, there are four main stages: "Understand Question", "Develop Ideas",
"Select and Organise ideas" and "Write and Check Essay".
They occur one after the other (i.e., no two stages happen at the same time,
and they are not optional stages).
Notice that each stage has several steps. In the first stage, for instance,
the first step is to "identify background facts, opinions & task(s)", and the next step is to "form one focus question for each task".
If the stages aren't as obvious as in the sample, identify which steps form a group of related steps (i.e., a stage).
The diagram shows a recommended process for preparing and writing an answer for Writing Task 2 in the Ielts test.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
You should write at least 150 words.
Have an introduction. This single sentence states the purpose of the flow chart.
To avoid a marking penalty, never copy phrases (a set of words) from the instructions.
Instead, paraphrase the instructions by using synonyms (e.g., replace "recommended" with "suggested") or changing word forms (e.g., change the noun "answer" to the gerund "answering").
Use paragraphing. Have at least two paragraphs detailing the steps in each stage.
You may be able to describe several related stages in one paragraph.
Organise information. The paragraphs should describe the actions in a logical and orderly way.
Include all actions. To avoid marking penalties, all stages and steps must be described.
Expand information. Fully explain information given in the diagram.
That means you'll often need to interpret and expand on the information in the diagram.
However, never include personal opinions or comments.
Use sequencers. Clearly show the order of steps using words like "first", "then", "after", "once" and "before".
Vary vocabulary. Avoid repeating words by using synonyms, and try to put wording from the chart into your own words.
However, don't worry if you have to reuse some technical terms from the diagram if you can't think of synonyms.
Use appropriate verb tenses. The present simple (passive and active voice) is usually used.
Passive voice is preferred to active voice as the process is more important than the people who carry out the process.
Include an overview. This one-sentence paragraph summarises the overall information.
With flow charts, I make this very simple summary the second paragraph.
Here's a report for the sample flow chart:
The diagram illustrates the process followed when answering Ielts Writing Task 2.
The process involves four stages over 40 minutes.
In the first stage of less than two minutes, the question is initially analysed for clear understanding.
Any background information or opinions about a social issue are identified, as well as the essay tasks. Next, a focus question is developed for each task.
Stage two involves developing ideas for the essay.
Several brainstorming questions are set and answered rapidly. This phase takes four minutes or less.
The third stage, also up to four minutes, includes the selection and organisation of ideas.
First, the answers to the brainstorming questions are reviewed to develop the thesis, the answer to the focus question(s).
The ideas and examples needed to prove the thesis are subsequently selected and arranged in a logical order. A paragraph outline showing the main ideas and the order of examples in each paragraph is then prepared.
The essay is written in the last, 30-minute stage. Ideas, grammar, spelling and punctuation are checked in the final five minutes.
The description of a flow chart differs from those for tables, graphs and pie charts in three ways:
All information is included. This is unlike table, chart or pie graph descriptions,
which only present the main features and figures.
Information is expanded to explain the flow chart.
The present simple passive is often used.
David Park designs and teaches Ielts courses, and is involved with Ielts testing at IDP.
To register for Ielts, contact //www.idp.com/thailand. Ielts is owned by Cambridge Esol, the British Council and IDP: Ielts Australia.
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