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WRITING TOEFL

WRITING OUTLINE


P1 INTRODUCTION = (HOOK) + THESIS STATEMENT

P2 TOPIC ST + DETAILS

P3 TOPIC ST + DETAILS

P4 TOPIC ST + DETAILS

P5 SUMMARY + ( CLOSURE)

TIP SUMMARY ถ้าเขียนไม่ทันก็ให้ paraphrase thesis statement แทน

การวางแผนก่อนเขียน

มีเวลาทั้งหมด 30 mins

5 mins ---> preparation ตีความว่าโจย์ต้องการอะไร ระดมข้อมูลในหัวมาคิด แล้วเลือกประเด็นที่สำคัญ ๆมา

20 mins ---> composition คือ thesis topic details summary hook closure

5 mins ----> revision ทบทวนว่าต้องแก้ไขอะไรบ้าง เช็คเรื่อง transitionals,parallelism,agreement,cluse/sentence structure,run on


WRITING CRITERIA


1. RELEVANCE
2. MORALITY เขียนให้ดูมีคุณธรรม อย่างเช่น เลือกสร้าง โรงงาน หรือ โรงเรียน ก็น่าจะเขียนสร้างโรงเรียน
3.ORGANISATION มี โครงสร้างตาม layuot
4.DEVELOPMENT พัฒนา มีการให้ detail explain clarify มีการยก ตย ประกอบ
5.UNITY กลมกลืนในเนื้อหา มีคำเชื่อม
6.STATISTICS grammar vocab มีความหลากหลาย

ชนิดของคำถาม(PROMPT)

PROMPT ประกอบด้วย information+instruction

1. JUSTIFICATION
ให้เลือกมาแล้ว อธิบายว่าดียังไง

In many countries,the size of the average family has gotten smaller in recent years. Deacribe both advantages and disadvantages of having a small family

2. EVALUATION
3. ARGUMENT

tip

เวลาเขียนตอบ ควรเขียนเกี่ยวกับสังคม อย่าเขียนเกี่ยวกับเรื่องของตัวเองมากเกินไป

เวลาเขียนแต่ละ pqpgraph ควรเขียน ย่อหน้า ละ point

พยายามใช้คำให้มีความหลากหลาย

อย่าใช้คำที่เป็นการบอกถึง 100 % เพราะว่า ในโลกนี้ไม่มีอะไรที่แน่นอน 100 % ยกเว้น พวก FACT ควรใช้คำพวก might,some of the








 

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Subject-Verb Agreement

Basic Principle: Singular subjects need singular verbs; plural subjects need plural verbs. My brother is a nutritionist. My sisters are mathematicians.


See the section on Plurals for additional help with subject-verb agreement.



The indefinite pronouns anyone, everyone, someone, no one, nobody are always singular and, therefore, require singular verbs.

Everyone has done his or her homework.
Somebody has left her purse.
Some indefinite pronouns — such as all, some — are singular or plural depending on what they're referring to. (Is the thing referred to countable or not?) Be careful choosing a verb to accompany such pronouns.

Some of the beads are missing.
Some of the water is gone.
On the other hand, there is one indefinite pronoun, none, that can be either singular or plural; it often doesn't matter whether you use a singular or a plural verb — unless something else in the sentence determines its number. (Writers generally think of none as meaning not any and will choose a plural verb, as in "None of the engines are working," but when something else makes us regard none as meaning not one, we want a singular verb, as in "None of the food is fresh.")

None of you claims responsibility for this incident?
None of you claim responsibility for this incident?
None of the students have done their homework. (In this last example, the word their precludes the use of the singular verb.


Some indefinite pronouns are particularly troublesome Everyone and everybody (listed above, also) certainly feel like more than one person and, therefore, students are sometimes tempted to use a plural verb with them. They are always singular, though. Each is often followed by a prepositional phrase ending in a plural word (Each of the cars), thus confusing the verb choice. Each, too, is always singular and requires a singular verb.

Everyone has finished his or her homework.
You would always say, "Everybody is here." This means that the word is singular and nothing will change that.

Each of the students is responsible for doing his or her work in the library.
Don't let the word "students" confuse you; the subject is each and each is always singular — Each is responsible.


Phrases such as together with, as well as, and along with are not the same as and. The phrase introduced by as well as or along with will modify the earlier word (mayor in this case), but it does not compound the subjects (as the word and would do).

The mayor as well as his brothers is going to prison.
The mayor and his brothers are going to jail.

The pronouns neither and either are singular and require singular verbs even though they seem to be referring, in a sense, to two things.

Neither of the two traffic lights is working.
Which shirt do you want for Christmas?
Either is fine with me.
In informal writing, neither and either sometimes take a plural verb when these pronouns are followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with of. This is particularly true of interrogative constructions: "Have either of you two clowns read the assignment?" "Are either of you taking this seriously?" Burchfield calls this "a clash between notional and actual agreement."*


The conjunction or does not conjoin (as and does): when nor or or is used the subject closer to the verb determines the number of the verb. Whether the subject comes before or after the verb doesn't matter; the proximity determines the number.

Either my father or my brothers are going to sell the house.
Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house.
Are either my brothers or my father responsible?
Is either my father or my brothers responsible?
Because a sentence like "Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house" sounds peculiar, it is probably a good idea to put the plural subject closer to the verb whenever that is possible.


The words there and here are never subjects.

There are two reasons [plural subject] for this.
There is no reason for this.
Here are two apples.
With these constructions (called expletive constructions), the subject follows the verb but still determines the number of the verb.


Verbs in the present tense for third-person, singular subjects (he, she, it and anything those words can stand for) have s-endings. Other verbs do not add s-endings.

He loves and she loves and they love_ and . . . .

Sometimes modifiers will get betwen a subject and its verb, but these modifiers must not confuse the agreement between the subject and its verb.

The mayor, who has been convicted along with his four brothers on four counts of various crimes but who also seems, like a cat, to have several political lives, is finally going to jail.

Sometimes nouns take weird forms and can fool us into thinking they're plural when they're really singular and vice-versa. Consult the section on the Plural Forms of Nouns and the section on Collective Nouns for additional help. Words such as glasses, pants, pliers, and scissors are regarded as plural (and require plural verbs) unless they're preceded the phrase pair of (in which case the word pair becomes the subject).

My glasses were on the bed.
My pants were torn.
A pair of plaid trousers is in the closet.

Some words end in -s and appear to be plural but are really singular and require singular verbs.

The news from the front is bad.
Measles is a dangerous disease for pregnant women.
On the other hand, some words ending in -s refer to a single thing but are nonetheless plural and require a plural verb.

My assets were wiped out in the depression.
The average worker's earnings have gone up dramatically.
Our thanks go to the workers who supported the union.
The names of sports teams that do not end in "s" will take a plural verb: the Miami Heat have been looking … , The Connecticut Sun are hoping that new talent … . See the section on plurals for help with this problem.


Fractional expressions such as half of, a part of, a percentage of, a majority of are sometimes singular and sometimes plural, depending on the meaning. (The same is true, of course, when all, any, more, most and some act as subjects.) Sums and products of mathematical processes are expressed as singular and require singular verbs. The expression "more than one" (oddly enough) takes a singular verb: "More than one student has tried this."

Some of the voters are still angry.
A large percentage of the older population is voting against her.
Two-fifths of the troops were lost in the battle.
Two-fifths of the vineyard was destroyed by fire.
Forty percent of the students are in favor of changing the policy.
Forty percent of the student body is in favor of changing the policy.
Two and two is four.
Four times four divided by two is eight.
If your sentence compounds a positive and a negative subject and one is plural, the other singular, the verb should agree with the positive subject.

The department members but not the chair have decided not to teach on Valentine's Day.
It is not the faculty members but the president who decides this issue.
It was the speaker, not his ideas, that has provoked the students to riot.




 

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Sequence of Verb Tenses

Although the various shades of time and sequence are usually conveyed adequately in informal speech and writing, especially by native speakers and writers, they can create havoc in academic writing and they sometimes are troublesome among students for whom English is a second language. This difficulty is especially evident in complex sentences when there is a difference between the time expressed in an independent clause and the time expressed in a dependent clause. Another difficulty arises with the use of infinitives and participles, modals which also convey a sense of time. We hope the tables below will provide the order necessary to help writers sort out tense sequences.

As long as the main clause's verb is in neither the past nor the past perfect tense, the verb of the subordinate clause can be in any tense that conveys meaning accurately. When the main clause verb is in the past or past perfect, however, the verb in the subordinate clause must be in the past or past perfect. The exception to this rule is when the subordinate clause expresses what is commonly known as a general truth:

In the 1950s, English teachers still believed that a background in Latin is essential for an understanding of English.
Columbus somehow knew that the world is round.
Slaveowners widely understood that literacy among oppressed people is a dangerous thing.

The tables below demonstrate the correct relationship of tenses between clauses where time is of the essence (i.e., within sentences used to convey ideas about actions or conditions that take place over time).


Tense in
Independent
Clause Purpose of Dependent Clause/
Tense in Dependent Clause Example(s)
Simple
Present To show same-time action, use the present tense I am eager to go to the concert because I love the Wallflowers.
To show earlier action, use past tense I know that I made the right choice.
To show a period of time extending from some point in the past to the present, use the present perfect tense. They believe that they have elected the right candidate.
To show action to come, use the future tense. The President says that he will veto the bill.

Simple
Past To show another completed past action, use the past tense. I wanted to go home because I missed my parents.
To show an earlier action, use the past perfect tense. She knew she had made the right choice.
To state a general truth, use the present tense. The Deists believed that the universe is like a giant clock.

Present
Perfect
or
Past
Perfect For any purpose, use the past tense. She has grown a foot since she turned nine.
The crowd had turned nasty before the sheriff returned.

Future To show action happening at the same time, use the present tense. I will be so happy if they fix my car today.
To show an earlier action, use the past tense. You will surely pass this exam if you studied hard.
To show future action earlier than the action of the independent clause, use the present perfect tense. The college will probably close its doors next summer if enrollments have not increased.

Future
Perfect For any purpose, use the present tense or present perfect tense. Most students will have taken sixty credits by the time they graduate.
Most students will have taken sixty credits by the time they have graduated.

Authority for this section: Quick Access: Reference for Writers by Lynn Quitman Troyka. Simon & Schuster: New York. 1995. Used with permission. Examples and format our own.

Note:
Unless logic dictates otherwise, when discussing a work of literature, use the present tense: "Robert Frost describes the action of snow on the birch trees." "This line suggests the burden of the ice." "The use of the present tense in Carver's stories creates a sense of immediacy."

Sequence of Tenses
With Infinitives and Participles
Like verbs, infinitives and participles are capable of conveying the idea of action in time; therefore, it is important that we observe the appropriate tense sequence when using these modals.


INFINITIVES
Tense of
Infinitive
Role of Infinitive Example(s)
Present
Infinitive
(to see) To show same-time action or action later than the verb Coach Espinoza is eager to try out her new drills. [The eagerness is now; the trying out will happen later.]
She would have liked to see more veterans returning. [The present infinitive to see is in the same time as the past would have liked.]

Perfect
Infinitive
(to have seen) To show action earlier than the verb The fans would like to have seen some improvement this year. ["Would like" describes a present condition; "to have seen" describes something prior to that time.]
They consider the team to have been coached very well. [The perfect infinitive to have been coached indicates a time prior to the verb consider.]
PARTICIPLES
Tense of
Participle
Role of Participle Example(s)
Present
Participle
(seeing) To show action occurring at the same time as that of the verb Working on the fundamentals, the team slowly began to improve. [The action expressed by began happened in the past, at the same time the working happened.]

Past
Participle
or
Present
Perfect
Participle To show action occurring earlier than that of the verb Prepared by last year's experience, the coach knows not to expect too much. [The action expressed by knows is in the present; prepared expresses a time prior to that time.]
Having experimented with several game plans, the coaching staff devised a master strategy. [The present perfect participle having experimented indicates a time prior to the past tense verb, devised.]


Authority for this section: The Little, Brown Handbook by H. Ramsay Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, & Kay Limburg. 6th ed. HarperCollins: New York. 1995. By permission of Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc. Format and examples our own.

For help with tenses used in reporting speech (indirect quotations), we refer you to Mary Nell Sorensen's web-site at the University of Washington.




 

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Diagramming Sentences

A Brief Introduction
Diagramming sentences has not been much in vogue as a pedagogical device for the past thirty years or so. There are, however, many grammarians and English instructors who hold that analyzing a sentence and portraying its structure with a consistent visual scheme can be helpful—both for language beginners and for those trying to make sense of the language at any level, especially for language learners who tend to be visual-learning types. Watching a sentence take root and ramify in space can even be fun.


I really do not know that anything has ever been more exciting than diagramming sentences.
— Gertrude Stein

There are other ways to represent graphically the structure of a sentence, but the most popular method is based on schemes developed by Alonzo Reed and Brainerd Kellogg over a hundred years ago. The diagrams in this section are Reed-Kellogg diagrams; in a few cases, an optional method is suggested. In these days of three-dimensional computer graphics, it won't be long before we will see colorful, three-dimensional, nonlinear representations of how sentences work, something like the Visual Thesaurus, by Plumb Design, Inc. (If you go there, please don't get lost. And come back soon!)


For further information about diagramming, see Martha Kolln's Understanding English Grammar (4th Edition. MacMillan Publishing Company: New York. 1994) or Thomas Klammer and Muriel R. Schulz's Analyzing English Grammar (2nd Edition. Allyn & Bacon: Boston. 1996). The order of diagrams presented here is based on a similar project at America Online's homework and instructional reference area (Keyword: homework), but the sentences and diagrams are entirely our own. If you need help with the definitions of any of the terms or concepts listed here, refer to the Index.

What Diagramming Teaches Us

When Joseph R. Mallon Jr. bumps up against a complex problem, he thinks back to a lesson he learned in high school from the Sisters of the Immaculate Conception.

The Philadelphia-area school's Catholic nuns taught him the art of diagramming a sentence. Once all the parts of speech lined up, Mallon pulled clarity from the chaos. It's a process he uses today to tackle tough issues as chief executive and chairman of Measurement Specialties Inc.

"Sit down quietly. Take (the issue) apart into its component parts. Make sure all the components fit together well. They've got to be well chosen, fit together and make sense. There are few (business) problems that can't be solved that way, as dire as it might seem," Mallon said. "Sentence diagramming is one of the best analytical techniques I ever learned."

Investor's Business Daily
17 October 2000

If you have any suggestions (or corrections) for this page, please send them to Grammar English. Because of the graphics-rich nature of this endeavor, we cannot respond with help on diagramming questions beyond what is offered here.

The diagrams themselves are individually listed on another page (click the "enter button" below). Click on a phrase or clause type in the top frame, and the diagram will show up in the bottom frame. If you prefer to see the diagrams listed in two long documents, you can use the summaries listed below.





 

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Parallel Form

Most of the descriptions and examples in this section are taken from William Strunk's venerable Elements of Style, which is maintained online by the Bartleby Project at Columbia University:

This principle, that of parallel construction, requires that expressions of similar content and function should be outwardly similar. The likeness of form enables the reader to recognize more readily the likeness of content and function. Familiar instances from the Bible are the Ten Commandments, the Beatitudes, and the petitions of the Lord's Prayer.

Students should also visit the section on Sentence Variety, which has material on the repetition of phrases and structures. Click HERE to visit a page containing the biblical passages mentioned above. Also in this Guide is a definition of the idea of a college, a lovely example of parallel form. Students are also familiar with Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, which abounds with examples of parallel form. Clicking on the title above will allow you to read this famous speech and view a brief "slide-show" demonstration of the parallel structures within Lincoln's famous text. (The Library of Congress maintains a site at which you can inspect two different drafts of the Gettysburg Address in Lincoln's own handwriting.)

Unskillful writers often violate this principle, from a mistaken belief that they should constantly vary the form of their expressions. It is true that in repeating a statement in order to emphasize it writers may have need to vary its form. But apart from this, writers should follow carefully the principle of parallel construction.

Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version
Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method, while now the laboratory method is employed. Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method; now it is taught by the laboratory method.

The left-hand version gives the impression that the writer is undecided or timid; he seems unable or afraid to choose one form of expression and hold to it. The right-hand version shows that the writer has at least made his choice and abided by it.

By this principle, an article or a preposition applying to all the members of a series must either be used only before the first term or else be repeated before each term.

Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version
The French, the Italians, Spanish, and Portuguese The French, the Italians, the Spanish, and the Portuguese
In spring, summer, or in winter In spring, summer, or winter (In spring, in summer, or in winter)

Correlative expressions (both, and; not, but; not only, but also; either, or; first, second, third; and the like) should be followed by the same grammatical construction. Many violations of this rule can be corrected by rearranging the sentence.

Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version
It was both a long ceremony and very tedious. The ceremony was both long and tedious.
A time not for words, but action A time not for words, but for action
Either you must grant his request or incur his ill will. You must either grant his request or incur his ill will.
My objections are, first, the injustice of the measure; second, that it is unconstitutional. My objections are, first, that the measure is unjust; second, that it is unconstitutional.

When making comparisons, the things you compare should be couched in parallel structures whenever that is possible and appropriate.

Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version
My income is smaller than my wife. My income is smaller than my
wife's.




 

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