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Preteolytic Enzyme




 

Create Date : 04 กันยายน 2553    
Last Update : 4 กันยายน 2553 14:14:08 น.
Counter : 145 Pageviews.  

mitocondria VDO

biosurfactant
Biosurfactants are surface-active substances synthesised by living cells. They have the properties of reducing surface tension, stabilising emulsions, promoting foaming and are generally non-toxic and biodegradable. Interest in microbial surfactants has been steadily increasing in recent years due to their diversity, environmentally friendly nature, possibility of large-scale production, selectivity, performance under extreme conditions and potential applications in environmental protection [1][2].

Biosurfactants enhance the emulsification of hydrocarbons, have the potential to solubilise hydrocarbon contaminants and increase their availability for microbial degradation. The use of chemicals for the treatment of a hydrocarbon polluted site may contaminate the environment with their by-products, whereas biological treatment may efficiently destroy pollutants, while being biodegradable themselves. Hence, biosurfactant producing microorganisms may play an important role in the accelerated bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites [3][4][5]. These compounds can also be used in enhanced oil recovery and may be considered for other potential applications in environmental protection [5][6]. Other applications include herbicides and pesticides formulations, detergents, health care and cosmetics, pulp and paper, coal, textiles, ceramic processing and food industries, uranium ore-processing and mechanical dewatering of peat [1][2][7].

Several microorganisms are known to synthesise surface-active agents, most of them are bacteria and yeasts [8][9]. When grown on hydrocarbon substrate as the carbon source, these microorganisms synthesise a wide range of chemicals with surface activity, such as glycolipid, phospholipid and others [10][11]. These chemicals are apparently synthesised to emulsify the hydrocarbon substrate and facilitate its transport into the cells. In some bacterial species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biosurfactants are also involved in a group motility behavior called swarming motility.

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Create Date : 26 พฤศจิกายน 2550    
Last Update : 14 พฤศจิกายน 2552 19:15:43 น.
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