The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music

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This article is about the stage musical. For other uses, see The Sound of Music (disambiguation).

The Sound of Music

Original cast recording
Music Richard Rodgers
Lyrics Oscar Hammerstein II
Book Howard Lindsay
Russel Crouse
Basis Maria von Trapp's autobiography
The Story of the Trapp Family Singers


1959 Broadway
1961 West End
1961 Melbourne
1965 Film
1981 West End revival
1993 Stockholm
1995 Tel Aviv
1998 Broadway revival
2006 West End revival
International productions

Awards Tony Award for Best Musical

The Sound of Music is a musical with music by Richard Rodgers, lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II and a book by Howard Lindsay and Russel Crouse. It is based on the memoir of Maria von Trapp, The Story of the Trapp Family Singers. Many songs from the musical have become standards, including the title song "The Sound of Music", "Edelweiss", "My Favorite Things", "Climb Ev'ry Mountain" and "Do-Re-Mi".

The original Broadway production, starring Mary Martin and Theodore Bikel, opened in November 1959, and the show has enjoyed numerous productions and revivals since then. It has also been made into an Academy Award-winning 1965 film musical. The Sound of Music was the final musical written by Rodgers and Hammerstein; Hammerstein died of cancer nine months after the Broadway premiere.


* 1 Background
* 2 Synopsis
o 2.1 Act I
o 2.2 Act II
* 3 Musical numbers
* 4 Stage productions
o 4.1 1959 Broadway production
o 4.2 1961 London production
o 4.3 1961 Australian production
o 4.4 1981 London revival
o 4.5 Later productions
o 4.6 2009 UK Tour
* 5 Critical reaction
* 6 Cast recordings
* 7 Historical accuracy
* 8 Cultural references
* 9 Notes
* 10 References
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links


After viewing The Trapp Family, a 1956 Austrian film about the von Trapp family, and its 1958 sequel, The Trapp Family in America (Die Trapp-Familie in Amerika), stage director Vincent J. Donehue thought that the project would be perfect for his friend Mary Martin; Broadway producers Leland Hayward and Richard Halliday (Martin's husband) agreed. The producers originally envisioned a nonmusical play that would be written by Lindsay and Crouse and that would feature songs from the repertoire of the Trapp Family Singers. Then they decided to add an original song or two, perhaps by Rodgers and Hammerstein. But it was soon agreed that the project should feature all new songs and be a musical rather than a play.[1]

Details of the history of the von Trapp family were altered for the musical. Georg Ludwig von Trapp lived with his family in a villa in Aigen, a suburb of Salzburg. The real Maria von Trapp was sent to be a tutor to one of the children, not a governess to all of them. The Captain's oldest child was a boy, not a girl, and the names of the children were changed (at least partly to avoid confusion: the Captain's second eldest daughter, the third of the seven, was also called Maria). The von Trapps spent some years in Austria after Maria and the Captain married – they did not have to flee right away – and they fled to Italy, not Switzerland. Maria von Trapp is said to have been unhappy with the movie's portrayal of her husband as having been cold and stern prior to her arrival, which she and their children strongly dispute.[2]

During the Cold War, the BBC planned to broadcast The Sound of Music on radio in the event of a nuclear strike on the United Kingdom. The broadcast would be part of an emergency timetable of programs designed to "reassure" the public in the aftermath of the attack.[3]

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[edit] Act I

In Austria, just before World War II, nuns from Nonnberg Abbey in Salzburg, Austria are singing the Dixit Dominus. One of the postulants, Maria Rainer, is missing. On the mountainside near the abbey, Maria expresses her regret to leave the beautiful hills ("The Sound of Music"). She returns to the abbey after the gates are locked; the next day, the Mother Abbess and some of the other nuns consider what to do about her ("Maria"). Maria explains that she was raised on that mountain and apologizes for singing in the abbey garden without permission. The Mother Abbess joins her in song ("My Favorite Things"), but later tells Maria that she should spend some time outside the abbey to help her decide whether she is ready for the monastic life. The seven children of widower Captain Georg von Trapp need a governess, and Maria will act as their governess until September.

At his villa, von Trapp, a decorated Captain of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, informs Franz, the butler, and Frau Schmidt, the housekeeper, that a new governess is coming and that she will not be able to walk out as did her predecessor. He also instructs them to prepare for his return from Vienna with two guests. Maria arrives, and the Captain explains her duties. He then summons the children with a bosun's whistle, and they march in, clad in Navy-like uniforms. He introduces the children (Liesl, Friedrich, Louisa, Kurt, Brigitta, Marta, and Gretl) and teaches her their individual signals; but she openly disapproves of this militaristic approach. When alone with them, she breaks through their wariness, and after learning that they do not know how to sing, she teaches them the basics of music ("Do-Re-Mi").

That evening, Rolf, a young messenger, delivers a birthday telegram to Franz and then meets with Liesl outside the villa. Rolf lets slip that a colonel from Berlin is staying with the Gauleiter and asks Liesl not to tell her father. He claims he knows what is right for her because he is a year older than she is ("Sixteen Going On Seventeen"). They kiss and Rolf runs off, shocked by his boldness. As Maria prepares for bed, Frau Schmidt gives her material to make new clothes, as she had given all her worldly possessions to the abbey for the poor. Maria asks for more material to make play clothes for the children, but Frau Schmidt refuses on grounds that they "march, not play". As Maria says her evening prayers, Liesl slips through the window, soaking wet from the thunderstorm. Maria agrees to keep her secret. The other children run in, frightened by the storm. To comfort and cheer them, Maria sings "The Lonely Goatherd".

Captain von Trapp arrives a month later with Baroness Elsa Schräder and Max Detweiler, and they wonder why the children are not there to greet them. When the Captain goes to look for the children, Elsa tells Max that something is preventing the Captain marrying her. Max opines that only poor people have the time for great romances ("How Can Love Survive"). Rolf enters, looking for Liesl. Surprised by the Captain, he greets them with "Heil". The Captain orders him off the property, maintaining that he is Austrian, not German. Maria and the children leapfrog in, wearing play-clothes made from the old drapes in Maria's room. Infuriated, the Captain sends them off to clean up and change. Maria firmly tells him that the children need him to love them, and he angrily orders her back to the abbey. As she apologizes, they hear the children singing "The Sound of Music", which Maria had taught them, to Baroness Schräder. The Captain joins in, and at the end he embraces the children. Alone with Maria, he asks her to stay, thanking her for bringing music back into his house. Elsa is suspicious of Maria until Maria explains that she will be returning to the abbey in September.

The Captain gives a party to introduce Elsa to his friends, and some of the guests argue over the Anschluss. Kurt asks Maria to teach him to dance the Laendler. She demurs, but he insists, and she attempts it. When he is unable to negotiate a complicated figure, the Captain steps in to demonstrate. Maria and the Captain dance until they come face-to-face, and Maria breaks away, embarrassed and confused. When Max arrives at the party, the Captain realizes that he needs another woman to balance the dinner table and asks Maria to fill this role. Max tells him that he cannot expect his guests to dine with a nursemaid, but the Captain ignores the objection. Maria and Brigitta discuss the expected marriage between Elsa and the Captain, and Brigitta tells Maria that she and the Captain are in love with each other. Elsa asks the Captain to let the children say goodnight to the guests with a song. The Captain resists; but Elsa nevertheless starts them off singing "So Long, Farewell". Max is amazed at their talent and decides that he needs them for the Kaltzberg Festival, which he is organizing. After the guests leave for the dining room, Maria unhappily slips out the front door with her luggage.

At the abbey, Maria tells the Mother Abbess that she is ready to take her monastic vows; but the Mother Abbess realizes that Maria is running away from her feelings. She tells Maria that she must return to face the Captain and discover if they love each other, and that, by actively searching for it, Maria must find the life she was meant to live ("Climb Ev'ry Mountain").

[edit] Act II

At the von Trapps' home, Max teaches the children how to sing on stage, but does not tell the Captain that he has done so. When the Captain enters and tries to get them to sing with him, they complain that he is not doing it as did Maria, and Elsa and Max leave the family alone. The von Trapps try to figure out why Maria left, and the Captain reveals that he has asked Elsa to marry him. The children try to cheer themselves up by singing "My Favorite Things", but are unsuccessful until they hear Maria singing on her way to rejoin them. When Brigitta reveals the wedding plans, Maria decides to stay only until the Captain can arrange for another governess. Max and Elsa argue with the Captain about the imminent Anschluss, trying to convince him that he must compromise, because it is inevitable ("No Way to Stop It"). Elsa tries to persuade him; but when he refuses, Elsa decides to break off the engagement. Alone, the Captain and Maria finally admit to their love, desiring only to be "An Ordinary Couple". As they walk down the aisle, the nuns reprise "Maria" against the wedding processional.

During the honeymoon, Max prepares the children to perform at the Kaltzberg Festival. Herr Zeller, the Gauleiter, arrives and demands to know why they are not flying the flag of the Third Reich now that the Anschluss has occurred. When the Captain and Maria return early from their honeymoon, Brigitta tells them that they are in time to hear them sing at the Festival. The Captain refuses to allow the children to sing, and when Max tries to convince him that the children would sing for Austria, the Captain points out that Austria no longer exists. Maria and Liesl discuss romantic love, and Maria assures Liesl that in a few years, she will probably be married like Maria ("Sixteen Going on Seventeen (Reprise)"). Rolf enters with a telegram for the Captain. He is cold to Liesl and refuses to give Maria the telegram, but hands it to Franz. The telegram offers the Captain a commission in the German Navy. He asks Maria if he should accept in order to keep his family safe. She tells him that his decision will be hers, and he decides that they must secretly flee Austria. German Admiral von Schreiber soon arrives to find out why the Captain has not answered the telegram. On learning that the Captain has just returned from his honeymoon, he congratulates him and explains that the German Navy holds him in high regard, offers him the commission and tells him to report immediately to Bremerhaven to assume command. Maria says that he cannot leave immediately, as they are all singing in the Festival concert, and the Admiral agrees to wait until after the concert.

At the concert Maria, the Captain, and the children sing an elaborate version of "Do-Re-Mi". After they finish, Max brings out the Captain's guitar, and he sings "Edelweiss", in which Austria's national flower becomes a declaration of loyalty to Austria itself. Max prevents them from leaving the stage, asking for an encore and announcing to the audience that this is the von Trapp family's last chance to sing together for a long time, thanks to the honor guard waiting to escort the Captain directly to his new command. While the judges decide on the prizes, the von Trapps sing "So Long, Farewell", leaving the stage in small groups. Max then announces the winners, stalling as much as possible. When he announces that the first prize goes to the von Trapps and they do not appear, the Nazis start a search. The family hides at the Abbey, and the Nazis do not find them until Rolf comes upon them. He calls his lieutenant, but on seeing Liesl, he reports that he has found no one. He leaves, and one of the nuns tells them that the borders have been closed. The von Trapps decide to flee over the mountains, and they leave as the nuns reprise "Climb Ev'ry Mountain".
โดย: องุ่นทอง วันที่: 12 กรกฎาคม 2552 เวลา:13:41:24 น.
Musical numbers

Act I

* Praeludium - The Nuns
* The Sound of Music - Maria
* (How Do You Solve a Problem Like) Maria - The Nuns
* My Favorite Things - Maria and the Mother Abbess
* Do-Re-Mi - Maria and the Children
* Sixteen Going on Seventeen - Rolf and Liesl
* The Lonely Goatherd - Maria and the Children
* How Can Love Survive - Max and Elsa
* The Sound of Music (Reprise) - Maria, the Captain and the Children
* Ländler
* So Long, Farewell - The Children
* Climb Ev'ry Mountain - Mother Abbess

Act II

* No Way to Stop It - Max, the Captain and Elsa
* An Ordinary Couple - Maria and the Captain†
* Processional - The Nuns
* Sixteen Going on Seventeen (Reprise) - Maria and Liesl
* Do-Re-Mi (Reprise) - Maria, the Captain and the Children‡
* Edelweiss - The Captain, Maria and the Children
* So Long, Farewell (Reprise) - Maria, the Captain and the Children
* Finale - The Nuns


* The musical numbers listed appeared in the original production unless otherwise noted.
* †Sometimes replaced by "Something Good", which was written for the film.
* ‡Replaced by "The Lonely Goatherd" in the 1998 revival.
* In some productions, "My Favorite Things" follows "Sixteen Going on Seventeen" in the thunderstorm scene, while "The Lonely Goatherd" is shifted to another scene.
* Many stage revivals have also included "I Have Confidence" and "Something Good", which were written (music and lyrics by Richard Rodgers) for the film version.
* Although many people believe that "Edelweiss" is a traditional Austrian song, in fact the song was written for the musical and did not become known in Austria until after the film's success.[4]
* The Ländler dance performed by Maria and the Captain during the party is only loosely based on the traditional Austrian dance of the same name.[5]
โดย: องุ่นทอง วันที่: 12 กรกฎาคม 2552 เวลา:13:42:05 น.
Stage productions

[edit] 1959 Broadway production

The Sound of Music opened on Broadway at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre on November 16, 1959 (moved to the Mark Hellinger Theatre November 6,1962-June 15, 1963) and ran for 1,443 performances. The director was Vincent J. Donehue and the choreographer Joe Layton. The original cast included Mary Martin as Maria, Theodore Bikel as Captain Georg von Trapp, Patricia Neway as Mother Abbess, Kurt Kasznar as Max Detweiler, Marion Marlowe as Elsa Schraeder, Brian Davies as Rolfe, and Lauri Peters as Liesl.

The production shared the Tony Award for Best Musical with Fiorello!. It also won for Best Actress in a Musical (Mary Martin), Best Featured Actress in a Musical (Patricia Neway), Best Scenic Design of a Musical (Oliver Smith), and Best Musical Direction (Frederick Dvonch) And it was nominated for Best Featured Actor in a Musical (both Theodore Bikel and Kurt Kasznar) and Best Director of a Musical (Vincent J. Donehue). The entire children's cast was nominated for Best Featured Actress category as a single nominee, even though two children were boys.

Martha Wright replaced Mary Martin in the role of Maria on Broadway in October 1961; Jeannie Carson succeeded Miss Wright July in 1962; and Nancy Dussault succeeded Miss Carson in September 1962. Jon Voight, who eventually married co-star Lauri Peters, was a replacement for Rolfe's part. The national tour starred Florence Henderson, and opened at the Riviera Theatre, Detroit on February 27, 1961 and closed November 23, 1963 at the O'Keefe Center, Toronto. Miss Henderson was succeeded by Barbara Meister in June, 1962.

The original Broadway cast album sold three million copies.

[edit] 1961 London production

The London production opened at the Palace Theatre on May 18, 1961, and ran for 2,385 performances. It was directed by Jerome Whyte and used the original New York choreography supervised by Joe Layton and the original New York sets designed by Oliver Smith. The cast included Jean Bayliss as Maria, followed by Sonia Rees, Roger Dann as Captain von Trapp, Constance Shacklock as Mother Abbess, Eunice Gayson as Elsa Schraeder, Harold Kasket as Max Detweiler, Barbara Brown as Liesl, Nicholas Bennett as Rolf and Olive Gilbert as Sister Margaretta.

[edit] 1961 Australian production

The Australian production opened at Melbourne's Princess Theatre in 1961 and ran for 3 years. The production was directed by Charles Hickman, with musical numbers staged by Ernest Parham. The cast included June Bronhill as Maria, Peter Graves as Captain von Trapp, Rosina Raisbeck as Mother Abbess, Lola Brooks as Elsa Schraeder, Eric Reiman as Max Detweiler, Julie Day as Liesl, and Tony Jenkins as Rolfe. A touring company then played for years, with Vanessa Lee (Graves' wife) in the role of Maria.

A recording was made in 1961. It was the first time a major overseas production featuring Australian artists was transferred to disc.

[edit] 1981 London revival

In 1981, at producer Ross Taylor's urging, Petula Clark signed to star in a revival of the show at the Apollo Victoria Theatre in London's West End. Michael Jayston played Captain von Trapp, and Honor Blackman was the Baroness. Despite Clark's misgivings that, at age 49, she was too old to play the role convincingly, Clark opened to unanimous rave reviews (and the largest advance sale in the history of British theatre at that time). Maria von Trapp herself, present at the opening night performance, described Clark as "the best" Maria ever. Clark extended her initial six-month contract to thirteen months. Playing to 101 percent of seating capacity, the show set the highest attendance figure for a single week (October 26–31, 1981) of any British musical production in history (as recorded in The Guinness Book of Theatre). This was the first stage production to incorporate the two additional songs (Something Good and I Have Confidence) that Richard Rodgers composed for the film version. The cast recording of this production was the first to be recorded digitally, but, as of 2008, the recording has not been released on compact disc.

[edit] Later productions

The 1988 Takarazuka (Japan) version
In 1988, the Snow Troupe of Takarazuka Revue performed the musical at the Bow Hall (Takarazuka, Hyōgo). Harukaze Hitomi and Gou Mayuka starred.

1990 New York City Opera production
A 1990 New York City Opera production was directed by Oscar Hammerstein II's son, James. It featured Debby Boone as Maria, Laurence Guittard as Captain von Trapp, and Werner Klemperer as Max Detweiler.

1993 Stockholm premiere
In the original Stockholm production, Carola Häggkvist played Maria, Tommy Körberg played Captain Georg von Trapp, Erik Skutnick played Max, and Emilia Brown played Gretl.

1998 Broadway revival
In 1998, director Susan H. Schulman staged the first Broadway revival of The Sound of Music, with Rebecca Luker as Maria and Michael Siberry as Captain von Trapp. It also featured Patti Cohenour as Mother Abbess, Jan Maxwell as Elsa Schraeder, Fred Applegate as Max Detweiler, Dashiell Eaves as Rolf, and Laura Benanti, in her Broadway debut, as Luker's understudy. Later, Luker and Siberry were replaced by Richard Chamberlain as the Captain and Benanti as Maria. Lou Taylor Pucci made his Broadway debut as the understudy for Kurt von Trapp. This revival opened on March 12, 1998, at the Martin Beck Theatre, where it ran for 15 months. It then went on tour in North America. This production was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Revival of a Musical.

"The Sound of Music" Australian production

1999 Australian revival
An Australian revival of The Sound of Music played in the Lyric Theatre, in Sydney, New South Wales in 1999. Lisa McCune played Maria; TV personality Bert Newton was Max; and John Waters was Captain von Trapp. The children's cast included Nikki Webster. This production was based on the 1998 Broadway revival staging directed by Susan Schulman and choreographed by Michael Lichtefield. The show was produced by the Gordon Frost Organisation and Sports and Entertainment Limited. The production also toured Melbourne, Victoria, Brisbane, Queensland, Adelaide and Perth, where Rachael Beck replaced Lisa McCune as Maria and Rob Guest took over as Captain von Trapp.[citation needed]

2005 Vienna Production
The first full-scale Austrian production opened on February 26, 2005 at the Volksoper Wien. It was directed and choreographed by Renaud Doucet, with designs by André Barbe. The production is still in the repertoire of the Volksoper with 12-20 performances per season. The cast includes Sandra Pires, Martina Dorak and Johanna Arrouas as Maria, Kurt Schreibmayer and Michael Kraus as Kapitän von Trapp and Heidi Brunner, Gabriele Sima and Ulrike Steinsky as Mutter Oberin (Mother Abbess).[citation needed][6][7]

2006 London revival
An Andrew Lloyd Webber production opened on November 15, 2006, at the London Palladium continues to run as of May 2008, produced by Live Nation's David Ian and Jeremy Sams. Following failed negotiations with Hollywood star Scarlett Johansson,[8] the role of Maria was cast through a UK talent search reality TV show called How Do You Solve A Problem Like Maria? The talent show was produced by (and starred) Andrew Lloyd Webber and featured presenter/comedian Graham Norton and a judging panel of David Ian, John Barrowman and Zoe Tyler.

Connie Fisher was selected by public voting as the winner of the show. In early 2007, Fisher suffered from a heavy cold that prevented her from performing for two weeks. To prevent further disruptions, an alternate Maria, Aoife Mulholland, a fellow contestant on How Do You Solve A Problem Like Maria?, played Maria on Monday evenings and Wednesday matinee performances. Simon Shepherd was originally cast as Captain von Trapp, but after two preview performances he was withdrawn from the production, and Alexander Hanson moved into the role in time for the official opening date along with Lesley Garrett as the Mother Abbess. After Garrett left, Margaret Preece took the role. The cast also featured Lauren Ward as the Baroness, Ian Gelber as Max, Sophie Bould as Liesl, and Neil McDermott as Rolfe. Other notable replacements have included Simon Burke and Simon MacCorkindale as the Captain and newcomer Amy Lennox as Liesl. Summer Strallen replaced Fisher in February 2008, with Gemma Baird portraying Maria on Monday evenings and Wednesday matinees.

The revival received enthusiastic reviews, especially for Fisher, Preece, Bould and Garrett. A soundtrack recording of the London Palladium cast was released.[9] Later assessments continued to be favorable: "Summer Strallen has the look, the style and the depth of character to convince her audience that she is Julie Andrews and delivers her opening songs with the right emphasis and quality.... I was very impressed with Amy Lennox.... Preece... stepped up to the mark."[8] The production closed on February 21, 2009 after a run of over two years.[10]

2007 Stockholm revival
A Stockholm revival began in September 2007 with Pernilla Wahlgren as Maria, Tommy Nilsson as Kapten von Trapp, Ulrika Liljeroth and Emmi Christensson as Liesel, Gert Fylking as Franz, Fillie Lyckow as Frau Schmidt, Malena Laszlo as Baroness von Schröder, Johan Wahlström as Max Detweiler, Jörgen Olsson as Rolf, and Margareta Dalhamn as Mother Abbess. Some of the characters names were translated into Swedish for a better flow, such as three of the children's names: Fredrik, Märta and Greta. The production was directed by Staffan Götestam and the choreography was done by Denise Holland Bethke.[citation needed]

2007-2008 Salzburg Marionette Theatre production
The Salzburg Marionette Theatre has been touring their version of the show, featuring the recorded voices of Broadway singers such as Christiane Noll as Maria.[11] The U.S. tour began in Dallas, Texas in November 2007.[12] It opens on May 9 in Salzburg, with performances scheduled through December 2008.[13] The director is Richard Hamburger.[14]

2008 International productions
2008 productions include Toronto, where the role of Maria was chosen by the public through a television show, How Do You Solve a Problem Like Maria?, which was produced by Andrew Lloyd Webber and David Ian and aired in July and August. Elicia MacKenzie was declared the winner over fellow "Maria" Janna Polzin.[15] Polzin was cast as an "alternate Maria" for Toronto stage production. She is currently playing Maria twice a week (Wednesday evenings and Saturday matinees), while MacKenzie will perform the role six times weekly.[16] An Oslo, Norway revival is scheduled to premiere in September 2008, with Maria Arredondo as Maria, Bjørn Skagestad as the Captain and direction by Trond Lie, who directed the -93 Stockholm production.[citation needed] In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a production ran with Kiara Sasso as Maria and Herson Capri as the Captain.[17] A Dutch version of the musical premiered in September 2008 with Wieneke Remmers as Maria, directed by John Yost.[18]

2009 Mexican Production
It is the third time that this show is produced in Mexico, the first one in 1976 starring Lupita Dalessio, the second one in 1980 starring Miriam Cossio and Héctor Gómez, and in this 2009 Production the Mexican Audience can see Maria performed by Bianca Marroquin, who has starred in the Broadway Production of Chicago as Roxie Heart for 3 Times.

[edit] 2009 UK Tour

During 2009, original West End cast member Connie Fisher is due to star as Maria in a production that will tour the UK. It is due to open on 26 July 2009 at the Wales Millennium Centre in Cardiff and is scheduled to close on the 20 February 2010 at the Edinburgh Playhouse, Edinburgh. Michael Praed will star as Captain Von Trapp, Margaret Preece as the Mother Abbess, Martin Callaghan as Uncle Max, Jacinta Mulcahy as Baroness Schraeder, Jeremy Taylor as Rolf and Claire Fishenden as Liesl. Kirsty Malpass will star as the Alternate Maria.[19]
โดย: องุ่นทอง วันที่: 12 กรกฎาคม 2552 เวลา:13:43:30 น.
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