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Abdominal Fat: Stress releases epinephrine, which reacts with hormone sensitive lipase, to help you lose fat around your waist. Too bad that doesnt work for fat around your hips.
Abdominals: Flat, bandlike, muscles on the front of your trunk. They connect your pelvis to your rib cage.
Abductors: A.K.A. outer thigh. These muscle includes your tensor fascia latae.
Acclimatization: If you train in the heat, you get better at conserving sodium (salt). Your sweat is more dilute. You preserve sodium. If you lose too much sodium it is more difficult for you to remain hydrated.
Accommodation: Your eyes ability to change the shape of its lens. This allows you to focus on objects that are far away or close.
Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter that slows your heart rate. It is controlled by your parasympathetic nervous system.
Active Isolated (AI) Stretching: A type of stretching where you contract your antagonist muscle for 2 seconds prior to stretching your agonist for 2 seconds. You can do as many as 10 repetitions of each stretch. The purpose of AI stretching is to inhibit the stretch reflex.
Active Recovery: Toxins accumulate in your muscles after exercise. These waste products are drastically reduced if you perform some type of activity after your workout. Walking, pedaling, or light jogging for 10-15 minutes will greatly improve the breakdown of metabolites to reduce unwanted stiffness and soreness.
Acute Urinary Retention: An enlarged prostate causes an inability to squeeze urine past it. Usually a catheter is required to transfer urine from the bladder to the urethra.
Adductors: A.K.A. inner thigh. These muscles include your adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, and gracilis.
Adipose Tissue: A.K.A. fat. This is a yellowish substance within your fat cells. Years ago it was valuable during times of starvation. In over fed America, adipose tissue around your waist and hips is a curse.
Aerobic Exercise: Aerobic means "with oxygen." Move your large muscle groups in a rhythmic fashion and you are doing aerobics. Walking, jogging, stairclimbing, swimming, and jumping rope are examples.
Aerophagia: Swallowing too much air.
After-Cataract: After a cataract has been removed, there is a blank spot that develops in your lens capsule.
Age-related Macular Degeneration: The part of your retina that is responsible for sharp, in-focus vision is called your macula. As you get older, your macula deteriorates.
Agonist: The muscle group you are referring to.
Alcohol: Moderate drinking is associated with a lower risk for heart disease in some individuals. One drink per day was found to increase the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol , a.k.a. "good cholesterol," in your blood. The higher your HDL levels, the lower your risk for heart disease.
Aldosterone: Your adrenal gland secretes this hormone. It is responsible for signaling your kidneys to conserve sodium and water. This raises your plasma volume. It raises your blood pressure too.
Alimentary Canal: Another word for your gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Allergies: Allergies occur when your immune system reacts to pollen, mold, or dust. Your body perceives these irritants as if they were alien invaders. Your symptoms include: watery nasal discharge; sneezing; coughing; itchy eyes, nose, and throat; nasal congestion; and dark circles under your eyes.
Alpha State: A brain wave pattern characterized by relaxed-concentration.
Alternative Approaches: Dr. Dean Ornish has shown that patients may reverse their heart disease with a combination of a low-fat diet, meditation, and exercise. Norman Cousins healed his ankylosing spondylitis (a form of arthritis of the spine) by watching funny movies and high doses of vitamin C. Many patients have cured their digestive disturbances by avoiding certain foods.
Altitude Training: The latest research suggests it is better to live at thirty five hundred meters and train at fifteen hundred meters, then equivalent sea level training or equivalent altitude training. This flies in the face of previous research that suggested it was better to train at a higher altitude than the subsequent competition.
Amino Acids: Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. You need not spend your hard earned money purchasing amino acid supplements. Instead eat lean proteins such as egg whites, chicken breast, turkey breast, fish, non-fat dairy, and game meats. Eight essential amino acids must be provided from your food. Non-essential amino acids are made within your body.
Amygdala: This is the part of your brain that is involved with emotion and memory.
Amylase: An enzyme that is secreted by your pancreas. It helps you digest carbohydrates.
Anaerobic Exercise: Anaerobic means "without oxygen." High intensity, short duration activities are anaerobic. Weight training, sprinting, basketball, racketball, and tennis are anaerobic.
Androgens: These are your male steroid hormones. They are produced in your adrenal glands and ovaries in women. These are the types of steroids that help you to build muscle.
Anemia:Your body uses iron to make red blood cells. If your iron levels drop, then your body loses its ability to manufacture red blood cells. The fewer red blood cells you have, the less hemoglobin. As your hemoglobin drops, the ability of your blood to carry oxygen decreases and you have less energy. Symptoms of anemia include fatigue, shortness of breath, dizziness, light-headedness, fainting, and decreased resistance to colds and other infections.
Aneurysm: This is a large bubble or pocket in your blood vessel. It is a weak spot in your vessel wall. If an aneurysm ruptures, it is life threatening.
Angina: Chest pain that occurs when your heart does not get enough blood and oxygen from your coronary arteries. Your pain may be referred to your chest, jaw, arm, or a variety of other places. The pain can be sharp, dull, or a pressing sensation. Angina may last minutes or weeks.
Ankle Strengthening: Place your foot on the floor against the leg of a chair. Push your foot against the chair sideways; both to the inside and outside to strengthen the muscles that turn your ankle in and out. Try this: Keep your heel planted. Move the front of your foot out sideways and back. When your ankle is strong enough, use a towel for resistance.
Ankylosing Spondylitis: This is an inflammation of your spinal tissue. It is so painful it may lead to stiffness. This may cause you to change your posture and change the way your facets of your spine sit atop one another.
Annulus Fibrosus: This is the protective, layered, outer portion of each of your spinal disks.
Antagonist: The opposite of the muscle group your are referring to. For example the antagonist to the biceps is your triceps.
Antioxidants: These are vitamins including C, E, and beta carotene,zink selenium, and others that are suggested to inhibit oxygen-based free radicals from attaching to and destroying your healthy organs and tissues.
Antitussive: This is a cough suppressant.
Aorta: This is the main artery that carries blood away from your heart.
Aphasia: Difficulty speaking or understanding language. It usually occurs after a stroke. Aphasia affects the left hemisphere of the brain, where language is processed.
Apolipoproteins: These are the proteins that combine with cholesterol and triglycerides. The combination is called lipoproteins.
Appendicitis: Appendicitis is an acute inflammation of your appendix. Your appendix is a thin, tube-shaped structure that protrudes from the first section of your large intestine. Your appendix can become inflamed because of an anatomical obstruction,or a blockage of hardened feces. This inflammation can rapidly develop into an infection.
Aqueous Humor: The fluid within your eye that nourishes and fills the front and back chambers.
Aromatherapy: Aromatherapy is an alternative therapy that is purported to enhance your well being through scent. The program includes wrapping your body in warm sheets saturated with scented oils. Then you are covered with a thermal blanket, as if you were in a cocoon. The manufacturers of these products claim benefits such as reduced swelling, pain reduction, and inhibited bacteria growth.
Arousal: A.K.A. activation level.
Arrhythmia: An abnormal heart rhythm. This is usually caused by a problem with your hearts electrical system.
Arteriosclerosis: A.K.A. hardening of the arteries It refers to the fact that your arteries may become hard and brittle through the deposition of calcium on artery walls.
Artery: A type of blood vessel that carries blood away from your heart.
Articular Processes: These are 2 bony processes that are on the back part of each vertebra. They form your facet joints.
Association: Focusing on the activity you are performing.
Asthma and Exercise: Carry your inhaler at all times during exercise. Keep your asthma under control so it doesn't interfere with your activity. If your doctor prescribed inhaled corticosteroids, use them according to your doctors recommendations. Control your allergies. Visit your doctor regularly and follow his or her instructions about monitoring your condition. Be sure to report any concerns immediately.
Asthma: The wheeze of asthma is caused by contraction of the muscular walls of the small breathing tubes in your lungs. The narrowed air tube creates a turbulent air flow. This causes the wheezing or whistling when you breathe. Because the tubes into the lung are narrowed, less air can get in and this decreases the oxygen supply to your body. The pathalogical muscular contraction of your breathing tubes can be stimulated by a wide range of substances such as inhaled dust or pollen, and various foods.
Astigmatism: An irregular curvature of your cornea. This causes distorted vision.
Atherosclerosis: Plaque and cholesterol build up along your artery walls. This causes a dangerous narrowing of your blood vessels.
Atherothrombotic Stroke: This is a kind of stroke that happens after a large artery to your brain has already been narrowed by athlerosclerosis. It becomes completely blocked by the formation of a clot.
Athletic Shoes: To find out if you need new shoes, place them on a table. Check for excessive wear. The back of your shoes should not slant inward. Shoes slanting inward may indicate overpronation, a condition in which your feet flatten and your ankles roll in. Worn spots on your shoes can also provide evidence of bone imbalances.
Atkins Diet: A high protein, low carbohydrate, high fat diet that has not been shown to be beneficial to long term weight loss.
Atrial Fibrillation: A heart rhythm problem where your atria quivers ineffectually. This allows blood to sit idly, and nonproductively, in your left atrium.
Atrium: The upper chambers of your heart.
Atrophy: If you quit using your muscles you lose them. Without stimulation, muscle atrophies.
Audience Arousal:When someone is watching you perform a task, it increases your arousal.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): This is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary, automatic, process. Examples include your heart beat and breathing.
Axon: A part of the neuron that transmits a signal to a cell.
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