What sorts of food are you allowed on the Atkins diet, and what do you have to cut out?
The Atkins diet recommends a limit of 20g of carbohydrate each day for the initial 14-day induction phase. This is a very small amount; for example a banana contains about 22g. So in this phase, the diet consists of meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese, a small amount of salad and vegetables, butter and oil. Carbohydrate-containing foods such as fruit, many vegetables, bread, cereals, rice, potatoes, pasta, cakes, biscuits, sugar, milk and yogurt should be avoided. The next phase is the ongoing weight-loss phase which allows about 40g of carbohydrate a day. So dieters are allowed some fruit, and more vegetables and nuts. Only sugar-free drinks are allowed. When a target weight is reached, dieters slightly increase their intake of carbohydrate until their weight stabilises, but the diet recommends not going over 90g of carbohydrate a day.
What are the possible side effects of the Atkins diet, and what are the potential risks?
During the induction phase of a low-carbohydrate diet like the Atkins diet, some people do experience side effects including constipation, halitosis, fatigue and headaches. In terms of risks, there is concern in the scientific community that because fat intake is often increased on low-carbohydrate diets, changes in blood lipids may increase the risk of coronary heart disease. There has also been concern that high protein intake would put extra strain on the kidneys. But although high-protein diets would not be recommended for people with kidney problems, no short term effects were seen in the healthy individuals that took part in the diet trials study. The Atkins diet is nutritionally restrictive, and vitamin and mineral supplements are advised while on the diet.
How long does it usually take to lose weight on the Atkins diet?
Weight loss can be very rapid in the 14-day induction phase of the Atkins diet, and a lot of this seems to come from fluid loss. A weight loss of 1 to 2 pounds a week is expected in the ongoing weight-loss phase.
What are the long term effects of low carbohydrate diets?
No long-term studies into the Atkins diet have yet been conducted, so as yet the long-term effects of low-carbohydrate diets are unknown.
What is ketosis?
When the body has used up its glucose stores, it turns to fat reserves for fuel. When the body burns fat, it creates molecules called ketones as a by-product. This is ketosis. Some ketones escape in urine, and some escape on the breath, which is why halitosis can be a side effect of low-carbohydrate diets.
The Atkins or similar low-carbohydrate / high-protein diets should never be followed without first discussing them with your GP.
แปะให้อีกข่าว มาจากหนังสือพิมพ์ชื่อดังของอังกฤษ The Guardian ค่ะ องค์กรที่ควบคุมมาตรฐานอาหารที่อังกฤษออกมาแถลงว่าสูตรอาหาร Atkins อาจทำให้เสี่ยงต่อการเป็นโรคหัวใจ มะเร็ง และโรคอ้วน
Official: Atkins diet can be deadly
Jo Revill, health editor Sunday September 21, 2003 The Observer
The first official warning about the dangers of the Atkins diet has been issued by the Government amid concern about the rising number of people opting for the high-fat, high-protein regime. The Food Standards Agency, which is responsible for all the Government's nutritional guidance, has published a statement alerting the public to the health risks of low-carbohydrate diets, including Atkins, claiming that they are linked to heart disease, cancer and even obesity.
In the past two months senior nutritionists have held talks with the Department of Health about the slimming fad and were asked to investigate the full risks of the diet.
But Ministers, who did not want to be accused of running a 'nanny state' by issuing the warning themselves, decided that it would be best if they were distanced from the advice, by letting it come from food experts.
The dangers are clearly spelt out on the agency's website, without actually naming the Atkins diet, which has been tried by more than three million people in Britain.
'Cutting out starchy foods, or any food group, can be bad for your health because you could be missing out on a range of nutrients,' the statement says. 'This type of diet also tends to be unrealistic and dull, and not palatable enough to be tolerated for a long time.'
It adds: 'High-fat diets are also associated with obesity, which is increasing in the UK. People who are obese are more likely to develop conditions such as diabetes and some cancers. Low-carb diets tend to be high in fat, too, and eating a diet that is high in fat could increase your chances of developing coronary heart disease.'
The advice, compiled in a question-and-answer style by senior nutritionist Sam Church, states that rather than trying to avoid carbohydrates, it is better to base your meals on them so they make up one-third of your diet.
But she does not include a warning about the possible risk of kidney or liver disease for anyone who spends a long time on the diet, possibly because of lack of reliable research to back such claims.
Dr Atkins' Diet Revolution toppled Harry Potter and The Order of The Phoenix off the number one spot during the summer; it now stands at six the UK bestseller list, having sold more than half a million copies in the past year.
Supermarkets report a surge in meat and cheese sales and a slump in pasta and rice. The price of eggs has risen by 9 per cent, bringing fears of a shortage because devotees of the diet are using the food as a way of ensuring their daily fix of protein. Some sandwich bars are also offering 'Atkins-friendly' meals, such as chicken and salad, to respond to demand and counteract the fall in sandwich sales, as bread is on the banned list.
A spokeswoman for the Atkins company argued that research showed it was consumption of large amounts of carbohydrates with a high-glycemic index, such as white bread, white rice or white potatoes, which increased the risk of coronary heart disease.
'At all stages of Atkins, we encourage consumption of nutrient-dense foods including plenty of vegetables, with the introduction of fruits and wholegrains later in the programme as one approaches ideal weight,' she added.
Fact vs. Fallacy Part 1 So that you don't have any lingering questions or doubts about the safety of the Atkins Nutritional Approach™, we dispel one of the most common misconceptions: that ketosis is dangerous.
One reason the Atkins Nutritional Approach has not been part of mainstream thinking (although the tide is beginning to change) has been misinformation. If you've heard that Atkins is dangerous, not to mention ineffective, you may have mixed feelings about starting a lifetime of controlled carbohydrate eating. Once doctors have adequate experience with Atkins, most of them agree that this program should be the treatment of choice not only for obesity but for diabetes and several other diet-related disorders. But sadly, the misinformation has prevented so many people in need from using and benefiting from the best treatment available, ultimately propagating epidemic, life-threatening conditions.
Modern medical history contains few examples of such vast discrepancies between what is said in print and the truth. You may find the following explanations a bit scientific, but this was done on purpose. You should have the full complement of information at your disposal to counter any challenge you get. Armed with information supported by a host of scientific studies, you will be able to hold your ownand likely to sway opinionin any debate that comes your way.
Fallacy: Ketosis is dangerous and causes a variety of medical problems. Fact: Our bodies have only two fuel delivery systems to provide us with energy. Our primary fuel is based on carbohydrate and is delivered as glucose. People who eat three so-called balanced meals every day get virtually all their energy from glucose. But the alternate backup fuel is stored fat, and this fuel system delivers energy by way of ketones whenever our small supply of glucose is used up (in a maximum of two days).
When a person doing Atkins releases ketones, he or she is in ketosis. Ketosis occurs when you are taking in a very low level of carbohydrate from the food you eat, as you will during much of the weight-loss phases of Atkins. Ketones are secreted in the urine (and at times in one's breath), a perfectly normal and natural function of the body. The more ketones you release, the more fat you have dissolved.
Part of this fallacy is the claim that ketones can build up to dangerous levels in the body. Studies show that ketone bodies are very tightly regulated in the body and will not increase beyond the normal range in healthy individuals. (Uncontrolled diabetics, alcoholics and people who have been on prolonged fasts might see an increase in ketones beyond the normal range.) The body regulates ketone levels the same way it regulates blood-glucose or pH levels1-4. And Dr. Atkins' medical practice repeatedly observed that overweight patients produce just enough ketones to meet their immediate needs for fueland no more. A person will have no more ketones after three months of controlling carbohydrates than they do after three days. It is highly unlikely that people, other than insulin-dependent diabetics, will build up ketones.
Confusion about ketosis often comes from people mistaking it for ketoacidosis, a condition found in Type I diabetics; this occurs when a person's blood sugar is out of control and he or she cannot produce insulin. No doctor should have trouble differentiating physiologic ketosis, which you will experience while doing Atkins, from ketoacidosis. Further, since people are often overweight specifically because of an overabundance of insulin, it is essentially impossible for them to be in ketoacidosis.
Some individuals at the ketogenic level of controlled carbohydrate eating may experience mild symptoms such as unusual breath odor and constipation. However, the vast majority of individuals do not develop problems. One study of a severely ketogenic diet showed that ketosis was benign, with no complications or side effects when studied in metabolic ward conditions. The month-long study documented heart, kidney, liver and blood-cell functions in the patients and found no adverse effects5.
In other studies, it has been shown that bone health was not compromised6-12 and that renal (kidney) function was found to be stable1, 14-16 on controlled carbohydrate diets. There is even scientific literature on hyperlipidemia (elevated blood fats, such as cholesterol and triglycerides), showing improved values on controlled carbohydrate diets17-28.
So the next time you read that the ketosis produced by the Atkins Nutritional Approach is dangerous, challenge the speaker or writer (in a letter to the editor, if necessary) and ask, "What is so dangerous about using up your stored fat?"