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Scientific terminology,ศัพท์วิทยาศาสตร์3



Caffeine: We know that caffeine helps you to mobilize free fatty acids for your endurance events. And recent research also demonstrates that caffeine improves motor unit recruitment in trained weight lifters to increase the amount of weight they can hoist. Caffeine is found in coffee, tea, cola and chocolate. Although caffeine seems harmless, it can be highly addictive. More than a few cups of caffeine-containing beverages per day can cause fertility problems, ulcers, raise blood pressure, cause tachyarrhythmia (an abnormally increased heart rhythm), increased cholesterol, and trigger panic attacks.

Calcium channel blocker: These are drugs that dilate your coronary arteries. They are used for reducing blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

Caloric Expenditure: You can increase your total caloric expenditure by lifting weights, doing aerobics, eating small, frequent meals, and increasing your total activity throughout the day.

Calorie: Some consider calories the enemy. Fat calories, in particular. You can get fat on too many fat, protein, or carbohydrate calories. But you need calories for growth, repair, and energy.

Cancer: An abnormal growth or tumor in which cells multiply uncontrollably. Cancer can invade and spread to other parts of the body.

Capillary: A vessel that transfers blood between your smallest arteries and your smallest veins.

Carb Loading: Previously, athletes stopped eating carbohydrates 5 days before their event. They became grouchy and cantankerous. Then, in order to load their muscle glycogen stores, they ate all of the breads and pastas in sight. Recent studies suggest the carbohydrate depletion stage is unnecessary. Instead, athletes should taper their training and increase their carbohydrates as their event approaches. This loads glycogen stores without creating needless irritability.

Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates (carbos) are not the enemy. Some of the latest fad diets claim that carbos make you fat. Carbohydrates include God-given potatoes, rice, beans, peas, corn, fruits, and grains. Processed carbohydrates are more calorically dense. These include pasta, bagels, and cereals. Carbos supply your muscles with energy to complete your workout.

Cardiac Output: The amount of blood that your heart can pump in one-minute.

Cardio vs. Strength Training: Which Shoud You Do First?: Do your strength training first. This way, you can re-cycle that lactic acid from your weight-work to be used for energy during your cardio workout.

Cardio-Kickboxing: An aerobic-anaerobic exercise program using punches, kicks, strikes, and blocks. Music is your motivation and an instructor teaches you your martial arts techniques practiced to the beat of music.

Cardiovascular: This involves your heart, lungs,and blood vessels.

Carotid Arteries: Blood vessels located on either sides of your neck. They supply blood to your brain.

Carpal Bones: A.K.A. bones in your wrist.

Cartilage Replacement: Healthy cartilage is taken from your knee. It's sent to Massachusetts where the cells are grown in a test tube. A month later, millions of cells are returned and injected back into your knee. 200 operations have been performed so far. The success rate has been 90%.

Cataract: A clouding of the lens of your eye.

Catheter: A hollow, flexible tube that is used to add or remove fluid from your body.

Celiac Disease: Malabsorption of nutrients because of a sensitivity to gluten. Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Symptoms include diarrhea, weight loss, and malnutrition.

Cerebellum: This is the part of your brain that coordinates your movements.

Cerebral Cortex: This is the part of your brain that is involved in thought, language, and memory.

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA): A.K.A. stroke.

Chiropractor: A practitioner who treats disease by manipulation of the spine and other body structures.

Cholesterol: A fatlike substance, produced by your liver. Cholesterol is in all animal food sources. It is an essential component of body cells. It is a wax-like in appearance. If your total cholesterol is greater than 200 ml/dl, find out from your doctor your ratio of LDL to HDL. If your HDL is high, better than a 4:1 ratio, you're doing fine.

Chylomicron: An extremely-low-density lipoprotein. It transports triglycerides from your intestine to the fat cells in your body.

Chyme: An almost liquid mass of partially digested food in your stomach and intestine.

Circuit Training: Circuit training is a way to get 2 workouts for the price of 1. If you do not have time for both aerobics and weight training, combine them with circuit training. Move from one exercise machine to the next, performing ten repetitions on each. Do not rest between exercises. The good news is, you will be huffing and puffing and your muscles will be pumped, all within the same workout. The bad news is, it would be more beneficial to separate your aerobics and strength training workouts to receive maximum benefit from both.

Cold Therapy: The sooner you deal with swelling after an injury the better. Apply a cold compress directly to the injury immediately. Cold shrinks blood vessels, which reduces bleeding. This helps to prevent swelling. Cold also relieves pain and keeps your muscles from going into spasm.

Collagen: A protein that provides your skin and other tissues form and tone.

Colon: Your large intestine. It extends from your ileum to your rectum. It is divided into your ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon.

Compound Set: Performing 2 or more exercises for the same muscle group.

Compression Fracture: This is when one of your bones collapses. It happens most often in your vertebra.

Computerized tomography (CT): This is a way for doctors to visualize what’s going on in your body. X-rays are taken from many different angles. These pictures are fed into a computer to generate cross-sectional images of your body.

Concussion: Receiving a blow to your head once in a contest is enough. The "second impact syndrome" happens when there are two consecutive impacts to your head without time for the first concussion to heal. The second impact can cause a coma or fatal brain swelling although the two individual hits seemed to be mild.

Cones: These are cells in your retina. They are sensitive to color and light. Cones are most active during daylight. They provide you with sharp vision.

Conjunctiva: This is your mucous membrane that lines your eyelid.

Contraction:The cross-bridging of actin and myosin and the pulling together of these fibers to cause a muscle contraction.

Controllability: Your ability to control the mental picture you have created in an attempt to improve your performance.

Cornea: Your cornea is a curved, transparent tissue that is in the front part of your eye.

Coronary Arteries: These are the arteries that supply your heart with blood.

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): CAD is a narrowing or blockage of the arteries that supply blood to your heart muscle. Risk factors for CAD include cigarette smoking, elevated blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, and physical inactivity. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol a.k.a. the "good cholesterol” also increases your risk.

Corpus Callosum: This is a large bundle of nerve fibers linking your left and right cerebral hemispheres in your brain.

Creatine: The only supplement in the last few years that has been shown to increase strength and size for bodybuilding athletes.

Cross-Training: In cross-training, two or more types of exercise are performed in a single workout, or used alternately in successive workouts. A distance cyclist may run twice a week, perform daily stretching, and lift weights occasionally.

Crunches vs. Walking: To remove body fat, burn calories. The abdominal muscle group is relatively small, and the number of calories expended during crunches is minimal. Twenty minutes of walking will expend more calories than a couple of hundred crunches.

Cryotherapy: This is where you use cold or freezing temperatures to treat disease.

Crystalline Lens: This is a transparent body directly behind your iris. It focuses light onto your retina.

Cuticles: Cuticles serve as barriers to protect your fingernails from infection. Many people trim their cuticle away from the curve of their nail. Be careful. This practice can lead to bleeding and swelling.



Create Date : 06 กุมภาพันธ์ 2554
Last Update : 6 กุมภาพันธ์ 2554 10:01:27 น. 0 comments
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